Biological control of black vine weevil - Heterorhabditis bacteriophora
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Nematodes, also known as roundworms, can parasitize a wide range of insect pests. There are various species and strains, all with great differences in efficacy. The nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is used to control black vine weevil. After application, the nematodes actively search for their prey and penetrate them via mouth, anus or respiratory openings. Once inside, the nematodes feed on the contents of the prey, excreting specific bacteria as they do so. These bacteria spread inside the insect and convert host tissue into products that the nematodes can easily ingest. The insect dies within a few days. Effected insects turn yellow to light brown and become slimy or dehydrated. The growth of the population of nematodes within the host depends on two factors: the number of infectious nematodes that penetrate the host insect, and the size of the host. The hermaphrodites can lay up to 200 eggs. The female lays her eggs inside the host or when there is insufficient food, the eggs will develop inside the female nematode. From the eggs that remain viable hatch larvae that rapidly develop. Several thousand nematodes can eventually leave a large-sized weevil larva. They immediately start searching for new prey.